why did luke edit mark's gospel

This similarity is what some scholars have dubbed the ‘synoptic problem.’ This raises a lot of questions. [3]See Julie M. Smith, “She Hath Wrought a Good Work: The Anointing of Jesus in Mark’s Gospel,” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity, 5 (2013). Mark’s book reflects Peter’s interest in spreading the gospel among the Gentiles. Jesus casts out a demon – his fame spreads, Jesus enters Peter’s house and heals Peter’s mother-in-law, Many look for Jesus but Jesus leaves them behind. [10] These six instances reflect Mark’s vision of discipleship: Mark teaches that Jesus doesn’t expect his disciples to be flawless; he expects them to stick close by so that they might increase in understanding. [4]It is possible that Luke had a defective copy of Mark’s Gospel which was missing Mark 14:3–9, so that Luke’s omission does not reflect Luke’s deliberate excision of the story. His work is the product of a sophisticated theological mind, assisted by the Holy Spirit, of course. [41] And I hasten to add that Brown’s focus on historicity definitely bears good fruit: it has led him to make some very intriguing observations, such as noticing the likely role of women, including Mary and Philip’s daughters, as sources for Luke’s stories. More importantly, Luke’s transformation of the woman from an insider of Jesus’ circle into a well-known sinner also participates in a uniquely Lukan dynamic. In general, Brown presents Luke as highly historically reliable. By emphasizing their lack of understanding, Mark is able to highlight Jesus’ patience with them as well as to encourage his audience members who struggle in their own discipleship. Here are some things to look out for in the book of Mark: Mark emphasizes the power of Jesus. [37]An example of this from Brown: “In another example, we glimpse the youthful Jesus in the temple while his parents are frantically looking for him. ): 1. The idea in Luke of Jesus commissioning his disciples to help him is supported by the narrative logic already discussed. And one of the distinguishing characteristics of Luke’s Gospel is that he frequently features similar stories, one about a man and one about a woman, as this slide indicates. 6 (December 1, 2012): 435–441. In the three Gospels the voice from the cloud said slightly different things. As Brown writes, “The word ‘complex’ represents accurately the relationship between the gospels of Mark and Luke.”[44] The four canonized accounts of the mortal life of Jesus are not identical, but this is, as they say in the tech world, not a bug but a feature! For example, he omits the story where Jesus’ family thinks that he is insane. And the final reference to the temple in Luke―which is, in fact, the final line of the Gospel and thus carries enormous weight―presents Jesus’ disciples still worshiping there. The book is written to the Gentiles as well, and all people everywhere. And Luke elsewhere repeats the theme of needing labourers for the spiritual harvest. So it is not that Mark’s story casts charity as unimportant; rather, it is precisely because it is so important that it can highlight the even greater significance of the anointing. Why did Luke change Matthew’s Nativity? He says Mark abbreviated Mathew and Luke used both Mark and Mathew to come up with his gospel. While it may not fit contemporary notions of responsible historical writing to adjust details to make a theological point, the desire to judge ancient writers by modern cultural expectations is to be avoided. Brown argues that Luke may be more historically accurate than Mark because of his use of eyewitness sources. Why Luke may have edited Mark’s Gospel Explain how and why Luke may have edited Mark’s Gospel. Bruce N. Fisk. Mark: Rabbi, Matthew: Lord, Luke: Master. Saint Mark the Evangelist wrote the second gospel, the Gospel according to Mark. Modern critical scholarship has been more critical of the traditio 5. Discipleship is an enormously important theme in both Mark’s and Luke’s Gospels. Luke had been a physician, but he left that profession to travel with Paul. On the question of omission, the answer cannot be merely that Mark and John did not have the material. The classic Nativity scene is actually an amalgamation of the different gospel accounts Reuters. Canonical Luke does not narrate the calling of the disciples but their commissioning. Latter-day Saint beliefs, perhaps more than those of other Christians, are well suited to accommodate strong editors because we believe in the inspired revision of scripture and we are not tied to the sole authority of a closed canon. It’s from then that the Nag Hammadi collection (hidden during a time of such persecution) dates. What Is the Purpose of the Nicodemus Stories in John? This is why Mark wrote the gospel he did – he wanted to show that their suffering was not in vain because Jesus really is who He says He is and that He understands what it’s like to serve and suffer. Apart from calling his disciples at the beginning of his ministry, there is little obvious narrative structural sequence to the events in Mark. Today I’d like to consider the reasons why Luke might have omitted this story. (4) Luke eliminates Aramaic in Mark. Jesus tells them to leave her alone because she has done a good work: the poor, he says, will always be there, but he will not. Why did Mark and John omit them? http://ehrmanproject.com And Jesus is very patient with them while they do so. Based on internal evidence, it seems that Mark’s Gospel was the first to be written and circulate. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. Luke includes details about John the Baptist and Elizabeth, while the others do not. 004894. Secondly, the Luke 5 lake scene is not a calling of the disciples as it is in Mark’s gospel. And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net. This approach works best for discourse and may also make some sense for controversy stories, exorcisms, and healing miracles, but seems less likely to apply to a story like the anointing, especially given the similarities between the two accounts. This looks very much like the sort of thing we read in Exodus and Acts. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. There are solid reasons to believe that Mark was the first of the four Gospels to be written and that Luke used Mark as a source. [14]This does not imply that Luke always separates his male and female characters; in the following stories, men and women are featured together: see Luke 1:5–7, 1:24–25, 1:57–63, 2:1–7, 2:15–20, 2:41–52, 4:38–39, 7:36–50, 8:19–21, 12:45, 12:53, 14:26, 16:18, 17:32, 18:1–8, 18:29, 20:27–38, 21:1–4, 23:49, (possibly) 24:13–35 (if a woman is one of the disciples). . [T]heir involvement in these significant events, and their close tie to the Twelve, underscore their roles as primary participants in Jesus’ emerging church.”[15] Further, I appreciated Brown’s repeated emphasis on the idea that women’s stories were not a “special interest”[16] of Luke’s but rather integral to Jesus’ ministry. Historians are not sure who this Theophilus (mentioned in Luke 1:3) was, although most likely, he was a Roman with an intense interest in the newly forming Christian religion. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. I don’t always agree with them, but I respect their work.”, Thanks much for this book review. “Neil, this is actually rather useful. Next, both stories present the complaint against the anointing as ironic: in Mark, she is accused of “wasting” ointment, but the reader knows that ointment used to pronounce Jesus priest and king and to prophetically announce his suffering and death is anything but wasted. So when Peter is commanded to cast his net in the sea and he replies, “At your word I will do it”, it is plausibly to think that the reader is meant to understand that Peter already knows the power of Jesus’ word. Given that, in Mark 14:9, Jesus proclaims that wherever the gospel is preached, the woman’s actions will be spoken of as a memorial of her, it is perhaps ironic that Luke omits this passage from his own Gospel. “Neil, for what it is worth it is obvious to me that if you had earlier in life tracked into a graduate program at one of the world’s leading research universities you would be one of the world’s formidable ones. [29] We can’t discern Luke’s motives from this historical distance, but this examination has shown that Mark’s anointing story would not have helped Luke develop several of his major themes. Many have observed, for instance, that Matthew and Luke often change Mark and Q in very different ways. Since Mark is our earliest gospel, written according to most scholars around the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, or perhaps in the decade before, we have strong textual evidence that the first generation of Jesus followers were perfectly fine with a gospel account that recounted no appearances of Jesus. Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.It begins with the discovery of the empty tomb by Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome.There they encounter a young man dressed in white who announces the resurrection of Jesus ().The two oldest manuscripts of Mark 16 (from the 300s) then conclude with verse 8, which ends with … Is it my imagination or is there really a sequential narrative development that I see here? Mark thus condemns the temple as hopelessly corrupt. We can’t know the latter author’s reasons for making the switch, but we can look at how the change functions in the narrative and see if that can suggest some clue about what the author might have been trying to do. She had been happy at the thought of being the mother of the Messiah (Luke 1:35; Luke 2:46-52) but had had no comprehension of the suffering Servant, or any willingness for Him to be such. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. Luke’s Christology is different. Where did Peter come from? And so was also James, and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. (2) The wording is frequently very similar and changes follow a pattern, including omission of the historical present tense (in 150 out of 151 instances), reduction in the use of the words “and” and “immediately,” providing antecedents to pronouns that might be ambiguous, and a more refined style of Greek writing in general. . Here’s the thing, though: Mark does not need to be the person who attached verses 9-20, or even the person who wrote them, in order for these 12 verses to be part of the original text. to express appreciation for your detailed interaction with what I’ve written!”, “Thanks for your very elaborate review! But in Luke the theme of the crowds and the miracle of the fish-catch make it clear that the image means the converting of people to Christ. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. That Gospel remains as its own unique testament. There is no consensus on this matter. John’s last chapter also depicts a miracle of an overwhelming catch of fish at the word of Jesus, and in that context it is clearly a metaphor for the conversions that Peter is expected to accomplish. Traditionally since the earliest times of the church, the Evangelists[1] have been ascribed to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. His answer prioritizes the anointing due to the limited window of time during which it is possible. [43]“Luke’s distinctive emphasis on Pharisees includes invitations to meals that eventuate in Jesus’ sharp criticism of the host (see 11:37–44; 14:1–24), along with the Pharisees’ repeated complaint regarding Jesus’ companionship with sinners (5:27–32; 15:1–2). 1. Brodie: Beyond the Quest for the Historical Jesus, He then moves to Capernaum. This post is going straight to the March 2016 Biblical Studies Carnival.”, “I want to say here that this site is so resourceful and highly on top of the most modern scholarship in the areas discussed here. Next, Christology refers to the study of the identity of Jesus. Note that I do not use the term ‘amateur’ pejoratively. Nonetheless, Nephi’s shaping achieves the laudable goal of presenting a clear choice between good and evil and this benefits his readers. Of course, at least once at Christmas there would be a sermon from Luke's wonderful story of Jesus' birth. Discipleship is an enormously important theme in both Mark’s and Luke’s Gospels. While Luke is not identical to Mark, the strong similarities in both content and language suggest that Luke wrote it with a written copy of Mark in hand. I appreciate his careful work on this topic; he observed something that had gone unnoticed in many other sources—even in many of the specifically feminist interpretations—regarding these female disciples: “such a place of honor, next to the Twelve, signals their high importance among Jesus’ closest followers. Jesus having refused each temptation, Satan then departed and Jesus returned to Galilee to begin his ministry. It is the mushrooming crowds that make them a necessity. You are doing essentially the same quality now (apart from the philology and languages) except mostly sticking to commenting on others’ work as informed comment/discussion.”. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. Luke 5:27–32).” Greg Carey, “Moving Things Ahead: A Lukan Redactional Technique and Its Implications for Gospel Origins,” Biblical Interpretation 21, no. Did two of the writers copy from one? This insight on the importance of home and family has influenced my own work on Mark as I’ve focused on the kin dynamics and settings of the stories of the Gadarene demoniac, the woman with the hemorrhage, and Jairus’ daughter. The following two tabs change content below. (Part 2), What Is the Purpose of the Nicodemus Stories in John? . He smooths the rough edges of the portrayal of Jesus in Mark. There is also some ambiguity in the Markan passage about the meaning of being becoming fishers of men. Mark has highlighted its shortcomings. . And they all knew that Christ was born. I call them amateurs only for the reason that they don’t have, so far as I know, advanced degrees in the subject. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. However, more recent research[17] has complicated this picture by observing that Luke has a strong tendency to feature women in stereotypically female roles. When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord. See Luke 13:6–9, Luke 4:16–30, Luke 10:25–37. 22:16), some … Luke 10:7). Helpers are marshaled in response to the growing need for help given the escalating success of Jesus’ ministry. (Talbert, p.63). If we think Mark is not chronological (either because of the Eusebius statement and/or because of the obvious literary design of the arrangement of the material), then it is hard to imagine how Luke would end up with virtually the same order of events if he had written a draft before handling Mark and/or wasn’t closely following Mark. [31] Luke omits Mark’s anointing story in order to focus our gaze on other aspects of Jesus’ ministry. This Gospel begins and ends in the temple,[21] Mary and Joseph make offerings there, and Jesus teaches there. The gospel of Mark begins with the baptism of Jesus which occurred just before Christ began His ministry. . Crowds become too much for the prophet or apostle. Luke, oddly, first has Jesus going into Peter’s house, and only afterwards calling him and others. Did Jesus Model Himself on Elijah? While Mark wrote and circulated his Gospel before Luke wrote his, Luke didn't edit the Gospel of Mark. [39] These additions serve as examples of an authorized messenger (in this case, Joseph Smith) presenting a rather changed view of Jesus’ mortal ministry. The text of the Sermon on the Mount differs significantly between Luke and Matthew, and Mark again omits it. Also, he probably based his gospel on Peter’s teachings. If so, this may be seen as one more of many other arguably anti-Marcionite agendas in canonical Luke-Acts. Third, the church in Rome was suffering severe persecution under emperor Nero about this time (AD 64). Probably Marcion’s gospel had been obliterated before Tertullian even wrote his anti-marcion treatises. The Gospel of Luke was written to Theophilus, meaning "the one who loves God." Both stories show a woman whose knowledge of Jesus exceeds that of the other guests, but at the same time, the nature of that knowledge is different. So Luke may have omitted Mark’s anointing story because it didn’t fit the picture of Jesus that he wanted to paint for his audience, either because of its low Christology, or because Jesus is relatively passive and quiet in the scene, or because Luke wanted to highlight the fact that the Last Supper would be the sole remembrance ritual commanded to Christians. Clearly, Mark and Luke represent different attitudes towards the temple, but there is no evidence of disagreement between Mark and Luke on the topic of sacred spaces or ordinances in general. [23]Compare Mark 11:12–14 with Luke 13:6–9. [4] Spoiler alert: we don’t know—and we cannot determine―why he did this. Walking on Water in Matthew's Gospel: "A Proper Doxological Ending"? Church Fathers wrote, and Bruce Metzger and Bart Ehrman agree, that Marcion edited Luke to fit his own theology, Marcionism. However, not all Mark’s stories are presented in the same chronology or in exactly the same way as we find in Mark. [42], On the other side of the debate, those scholars who think that there was just one anointing suggest that it strains credulity to think that Jesus would have experienced two such very similar events in his lifetime: they argue that the shared material between the two stories is far too substantive to reflect two different historical events, but that if we assume that Luke has edited Mark’s story, we find that the alterations closely match the kinds of changes that Luke makes in other situations where we are more sure that he edits Mark’s account.[43]. Result. Best, John”, — John Moles, September 2011 (personal email). ): 1. [2]The similarities include: (1) Luke, like Mark, has a doubled reference to the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread; (2) the phrase that the KJV translates “and the chief priests and the scribes sought” (Mark 14:1) is identical in the Greek in Mark and Luke; (3) the unnecessary reference to Judas as being one of the twelve (Mark 14:10//Luke 22:3; compare Mark 3:19//Luke 6:16, where Judas Iscariot has already been introduced as one of the twelve); and (4) the same five verbs are used to describe Judas going away (KJV: “went”), Judas betraying Jesus, and the rejoicing (KJV: “were glad”) of the religious authorities, Judas’ seeking (KJV: “sought”) an easy way to betray Jesus, and the final reference to “betray” (at the end of Mark 14:11). In that story, Jesus is dining at the home of Simon the leper. At the end of the temptation, the gospel of Matthew says the devil left Jesus and then angels ministered to Him (Matthew 4:11). [1]S. Kent Brown minimizes this relationship to the point of suggesting that it reads as if Luke already had a draft of the gospel before he encountered Mark and that he draws on him only very little. We’ve covered five reasons why Luke may have omitted Mark’s anointing story. Yes each gospel characterized him differently partly because of the individual characteristics of the authors and the audience their gospel was directed towards.

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